Protocols Explained

OTP (Vernam Cipher)

One-time Pad (OTP) (Vernam cipher) is a crypto-method that is proven to be mathematically unbreakable and impossible to defeat. Diplomats and military have used OTP to protect top-secret communications, including the ETCRRM II Washington/Moscow telex. One-time Pad is an algorithm where plaintext is combined with a random key using modular addition, and the key is never repeated. Though this sounds simple, practical implementation of this method has proved difficult. OTP requires two copies of the encryption key–one for the sender and one for the receiver—a truly random key equal to the size of the message, used once and then destroyed. Until now, these practical considerations limited adoption of OTP beyond a narrow scope of top secret communications.

DTLS (Datagram Transport Layer Security)

DTLS is a commercially available communications security protocol that allows datagram-based applications to communicate in a way that is designed to prevent eavesdropping, tampering, and message forgery. The DTLS is based on the stream-oriented Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol and is intended to provide similar security guarantees.

SRTP (Secure Real-Time Transport Protocol)

SRTP is an extension of the Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) that incorporates enhanced security features for protecting Voice over the Internet Protocol (VoIP) communications. SRTP normally utilizes an Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) cipher for encrypting and decrypting the data flow, and also provides the means to secure integrity of data and safety from the data replay.

ZRTP (Zimmermann Real-time Transport Protocol)

ZRTP is a cryptographic key-agreement protocol that negotiates keys for encryption between two end points in VoIP phone telephony that utilizes RTP. ZRTP uses a Diffie–Hellman key exchange during call setup in-band in the RTP media stream and SRTP for encryption. ZRTP does not require prior shared secrets and does not rely on a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) or on certification authorities. It uses Short Authentication String (SAS) to ensure that the attacker is not present in the first communication session.

OpenPGP (Open Pretty Good Privacy) 

OpenPGP provides cryptographic privacy and authentication for data communications and is often used for signing, encrypting, and decrypting emails. OpenPGP uses a serial combination of hashing, data compression, symmetric-key cryptography, and public-key cryptography, enabling secure delivery of files and messages, as well as providing verification of who created or sent a message using digital signature process.

 

 

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